Recently, I worked with Gabi Witthaus in the development and delivery of the Storyboarding for Learning Design Open Online Course (OOC), with Jeff Stanford’s support as a facilitator. We designed the course drawing from our experience in topic-related workshops. We used open educational resources (OERs), which are materials released under a licence that permits their free use and re-purposing. Some, we had developed ourselves. Others were created by other academics. Attributing everything correctly was a nightmare.
As I was working in the Storyboarding OOC, I was also working in the redesign of a MOOC on Learning Design, which will be delivered in EMMA. I was simultaneously creating activities and materials for both courses. While each course is unique, the content is similar. Eventually I had to ask myself: Should I say that the EMMA MOOC is based on the OOC or the OOC based on the EMMA MOOC? Should I attribute my own work? Is a note at the beginning of the OOC, stating that I am a co-creator of the materials, enough for people to understand that everything that does not state otherwise was created by me? How important is it to be that specific?
For both courses, I used OERs I have used in the past. I decided to check if my previous attributions were correct. I discovered that some OERs were widely used, but it was unclear who the original author was. For example: I found an OER used by A, who attributed the OER to B. However, I could also find the same OER attributed to C, and to D, and to E. So who was the actual creator? Sometimes, when I find an OER without an attribution, I assume the author of whatever I am looking at is also the author of the OER (for example: imagine an image within a text; if the image has no attribution, I assume the author of the text is also the creator of the image). A number of people seem to share my assumption. What if the assumption is incorrect? What if the author simply did not write the correct attribution? Who to attribute then? If both B and C use an OER without attributing it, how do you know who is the actual author?
And this is just the beginning. One of the activities is about how to ruin a course. A similar activity was developed in the past by Rebecca Galley and the OULDI team at the Open University UK, 2009. However, our version of this activity is very different. The idea behind it is the same, but everything else is different. Should we attribute it? In other words, how much does an OER need to be modified before it doesn’t really make sense to attribute it? For the OOC, we decided to have a note stating that our activity was inspired by the other OER.
But sometimes it is trickier than that. Have you ever had an “original” idea that -you later find out- was published before by someone else? I have created activities that I later find as OERs elsewhere. (A simple example: Think about a welcome activity where you ask participants to introduce themselves. Lots of people have created a similar activity.) What do you do about it in terms of attribution? Is it really your work? What if you had seen that OER before but you didn’t remember?
Sometimes I look for several OERs on the same topic and I create my own resource based on them. Should I attribute all the OERs? None at all? Only the one that had the most influence on my resource? What if the lines are not clear cut?
Finally, what if I want to use an OER that was inspired by another one? (The Storyboarding OOC’s activity on how to ruin a course is a great example of this). Should I attribute both the creator of the OER and the inspirators?
Attributing OERs gives me a headache.
OER Attribution Problems
I don’t have answers for all my questions. But I’ve come up with certain ideas that help. Using full OERs (not trying to build upon several of them or change them considerably) prevents lots of problems. Also, favouring public domain resources (thank you all who let everyone use your work without minding the attribution) works, especially when you want to build upon materials. Attribution builders available online help you establish a standard when attributing and identify data required. They also provide guidance on how to attribute derivative works (thank you, Gabi, for the info!).
If you have any other answers or suggestions, please share! I would be more than happy to learn.